杨楠峰【视频】- 主谓一致 知识大全 语法-品志教育

【视频】| 主谓一致 知识大全 语法-品志教育
语法 | "主谓一致" 知识大全


何谓“主谓一致”
主谓一致是指谓语动词与主语在“人称”和“数”方面上保持一致。

一般情况下,主谓一致必须遵循三原则:
1. 语法一致原则(grammatical concord),
2. 意义一致原则(notional concord) 和
3. 就近一致原则(principle of proximity)。
“主谓一致”考查内容涉及名词单数或复数作主语、不可数名词作主语、不定代词作主语、并列结构作主语、特殊名词作主语时与谓语动词数的一致等。
下面请分别看一下:
语法一致原则语
指主语是单数形式,谓语动词用单数形式,主语是复数形式,谓语也用复数形式。
主语是单数形式,谓语动词用单数形式;
例1:Tom isa good student.
汤姆是一个好学生。
主语是复数形式,谓语动词用动词原形波力挺。
例2:Theyoftenplayfootball on the playground.
他们经常在操场踢足球。
或. 语法一致:主语和谓语形式上要一致。
1)and/ both…and… + V(2)
Mary and Bob are good friends.
2)“不定代词” + V(1)
Either, neither, each one, the other, another, anybody, anyone, anything, someone, somebody, something, everyone, everybody, everything, nobody, no one, nothing.
Is there anything wrong with your bike?
3)each/ every (each…and; every…and) + V(1)
Each boy and each girl was given a new book.
4)表伴随(with, along with, together with, as well as, rather than时光之刃 , including, besides, like万界天王 , except, but) + V(1)
Mr. Green with his wife is coming to Beijing.
5)The number of + N(2) + V(1)
6)To do/ Doing + V(1)
即在语法形式上取得一致,谓语动词的单复数形式由主语的单复数形式决定。
1. 单数名词、不可数名词、单个动词不定式短语、动名词短语以及句子作主语时,谓语动词要用单数形式。
To see is to believe.
眼见为实。
Reading aloud is very important in learning English.
学习英语时大声朗读非常重要。
When they could finish the task is not known yet.
他们何时能完成任务还未知。
Whoever wants to join in the competition is asked to sign his/her name here.
要参加比赛的人请在这里签名。
注意:what引导的主语从句充当主语时,有时要以what所指代的词的意义来决定谓语动词的数。
What he said is true.
他所说的是真的。
What we need are more volunteers.
我们所需要的是更多的志愿者。
2. 由连接词and或both … and连接的名词、动词不定式短语、动名词短语以及句子作主语时,谓语动词要用复数形式。
What he said and what he did have greatly encouraged the other students.
他说的话及行为极大地鼓舞了其他学生。
Both his father and his mother are advanced workers.
他的爸爸和妈妈都是先进工作者。
注意:有时,一些用and连接的主语表达的却是单数的概念,这时谓语动词也应用单数形式。
(1)用and连接的名词表示同一人、同一物或同一概念作主语时
Bread and butter is nutritious for patients.
黄油面包对病人很有营养。
Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.
早睡早起使人健康、富有和聪明。
The secretary and manager was speaking at the meeting.
那位书记兼经理在会上讲话。
(2)“each/every/no/ many a + 单数名词+ and + each/every/no/many a + 单数名词”作主语时
Every hour and every minute is precious.
每一小时,每一分钟,都很宝贵庞小杰 。
No man and no woman is not allowed to enter the hall.
每个人都不允许进入大厅。
3. “名词+as well as, rather than, like, but, expect, besides, with, together with, along with黄兴维 , including, in addition to+ 名词”结构作主语时,谓语动词同第一个名词的数保持一致。
Tom as well as two of his friends was invited to the party.
汤姆以及他的两个朋友一起被邀请参加宴会了。
Nobody but one teacher and three students was in the lab.
实验室只有一个老师和三个学生。
4. “more than one 或many a + 单数名词”作主语时,尽管其意义为复数,但谓语动词还是用单数形式钱慧仪。
More than one student is against the decision.
不止一个学生反对这个决定。
Many a page in this book is missing.
这本书缺了许多页。
5. 不定代词either, neither, each, every 或no +单数名词和由some, any, no, every与thing, body, one构成的复合不定代词作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。
Nothing in the world moves faster than light.
世上没有什么东西比光传播得更快。
Each one of us has his own duty.
我们每个人都有自己的职责。
注意:若none of后面的名词是不可数名词,它的谓语动词就要用单数形式;若它后面的名词是复数,它的谓语动词用单数形式或复数形式都可以。
None of the money has been spent on repairs.
这笔钱没有花费在维修方面。
None of the passengers were/was aware of the danger.
乘客中没有一个意识到危险的存在。
6. 由“a lot of, lots of, plenty of, the rest of, the majority of + 名词”构成的短语以及由“分数或百分数+名词”构成的短语作主语时,其谓语动词的数要根据短语中后面名词的数而定。
The majority of doctors believe smoking is harmful to health.
大多数医生都认为吸烟有害健康。
The majority of the damage is easy to repair.
这次的损害大部分都容易补救。
The rest of the books were returned to the library.
其余的书都归还给图书馆了。
The rest of the money was given to the villagers.
其余的钱都给了村民。
7.“a large amount of + 不可数名词”结构作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式;“large amounts of +不可数名词”结构作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。
A large amount of damage was done in a short time.
在短时间内就造成了巨大的损失。
8. 在定语从句中,关系代词that, who, which等作主语时,其谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致。
I, who am your teacher, will do my best to help you.
我是你的老师,我会尽全力帮助你的。
Those who have finished the work can go home first.
那些已完成工作的人可以先回家。
注意:“one of + 复数名词+who/which/that” 引导的定语从句中,若关系代词在定语从句中充当主语,谓语动词常用复数形式。若one 前有the (only/very / right ) 修饰时,从句中的谓语动词用单数形式。
He was one of the students who were given a prize.
他是那些获奖的学生之一。
I was the only one in my office who was invited.
我是办公室里唯一受到邀请的人。
9. 由两部分组成的表示衣物或工具的名词作主语时,如:glasses,spectacles,shoesqq勋章墙,boots, trousers/pants,compasses,chopsticks,scissors,socks等,谓语动词通常用复数纨绔法师 ,但这类词如用a pair of修饰时,谓语动词用单数。
My glasses were broken while playing football yesterday.
昨天踢足球时我的眼镜被打碎了。
A pair of shoes is lying under the bed.
床底下有一双鞋。
Here are some new pairs of shoes.
这里有几双新鞋。
10. 由“kind/form/type/sort/species /series +of + 名词” 作主语时,谓语动词的单复数形式取决于这些词的单复数而不是它们后面所跟的名词。
All kinds of difficulties have to be overcome .
必须克服各种各样的困难。
This kind/sort of questions is very difficult.
这种问题很难。
(但Questions of this kind / sort are very difficult.谓语动词要用复数形式。)
意义一致原则
主语形式上为单数,但意义为复数,因此谓语动词用复数形式;
例1:The people arerunning for their lives.
人们为了生活而奔波。
主语形式上为复数,但表示单数意义,这时谓语动词用单数形式。
例2:My family ishaving lunch now.
我们一家人现在正吃午饭。
或. 意义一致:主语的概念决定谓语的单复。
1)冠词 + N + and + N + V(1)
The teacher and writer is coming to give us a report next week.
The singer and dancer has been invited to the party.
2)钱、价格、长度、时间 + V(1)
Three years is a long time.
即谓语动词的单复数形式由主语的意义而不是形式所决定。当主语形式为单数,但意义为复数时,谓语动词要用复数形式;但主语形式为复数,而意义却为单数时,谓语动词用单数形式。
1. 有些名词如people, cattle,police,trousers等没有单数形式,作主语时,谓语动词只能用复数。
The police were sent to the spot to keep order immediately.
警察立即被派往现场维持秩序。
Cattle were allowed to graze in this area.
允许牲畜在这个地区吃草。
2. 英语中一些单复数同形的名词作主语时,应根据其表达的意义来决定谓语动词的单复数形式,这类名词常见的有sheep,deer,fish,means, species,Chinese,Japanese,series等。
Every possible means has been used to prevent the air pollution.
为了防止大气污染,每一种方法都试过了七彩蝶园。
All possible means have been tried to keep animals and plants from becoming endangered.
为了使动植物的生命不受到威胁,所有的方法都试过了。
3. 有些集合名词,如public,family, enemy尖椒变蛋 , audience,government,group,committee,team,media杨楠峰 ,staff,crew等作主语时, 谓语动词的数要根据其包含的意义而定。如果该名词表示一个整体,其谓语动词用单数形式;但如果这些集体名词表示集体中的若干个体时,谓语动词用复数形式。
A team which is full of enthusiasm is more likely to win.
情绪高昂的球队比较可能获胜。
The team are practicing hard on the playground.
队员们正在操场刻苦地训练。
The government has taken possible action.
政府已经采取了可能的措施。
The government are discussing the proposal.
政府正在讨论这项提案。
4. “the + 形容词或过去分词”表示一类人时,谓语动词用复数形式;如 “the + 形容词”指一个人或表示一种抽象概念或品质时,谓语动词用单数形式。
The wounded were saved by the villagers at last.
最后,伤员们被村民们救起。
The wounded in the accident was a policeman.
这次事故的受伤者是一名警察。
The beautiful is not always useful.
好看的并不总是有用的。
5. 有些以s结尾表示学科名称的词,如physics顾里扮演者, mathematics, economics, politics等,以及用作书名、地名、国名、地区名的复数名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。
Politics is a complicated subject.
政治是一门复杂的学科。
The New York Times is one of the most influential newspapers in the world.
《纽约时报》是世界上最具影响力的报纸之一。
6. 表示距离、长度、价值、金额、重量等的复数名词作主语时,如作为一个整体来看待的话,谓语动词通常用单数。
Twenty kilometers is a quite long distance.
二十公里是一段相当长的距离。
Fifty dollars was a large sum for me at that time.
那时五十美金对我来说是一大笔钱。
7. “a number of+复数名词”作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式;“the number of+复数名词”作主语时生生不息造句 ,谓语动词用单数形式。
A large number of people have applied for the job.
很多人申请了这项工作天描 。
The number of people learning English inChinais increasing rapidly at present.
目前中国学习英语的人数正在增加。
8. such作主语时要根据其所指的内容决定谓语动词的单复数形式。
Such is our plan.
这就是我们的计划。
Such are his words.
这些就是他所说的话。
就近一致原则
就近一致原则就近一致原则
谓语动词用单数形式还是用复数形式,取决于最靠近他的主语。
例1:Not only the teacher but alsohis studentslikeplaying football.
不仅老师喜欢踢足球,而且他的学生也喜欢踢足球。
例2:Thereisapen and some books on the desk.
课桌上有一支钢笔和一些书。
或. 就近原则:特殊结构中,靠近谓语的名词决定它的单复数。
1)either…or…, neither…nor…, not only…but also…, not…but…, or
Not only my parents but also I am looking forward to meeting my uncle.
2)There be / Here be
There is a table and two chairs in Tom’s room.
即谓语动词的人称和数须与邻近的主语保持一致。
1. 在there be 结构、here 以及表示地点的介词词组位于句首引起的倒装句中,谓语动词的人称和数应与最近的一个主语保持一致。
There are two chairs and a desk in the office.
办公室中有两把椅子和一张桌子。
Here are my replies to your questions.
这些是我对你的问题的回答。
2. 当either…or…;neither…nor…;not only…but also…;not…but…;or;nor等并列连词连接两个主语时,谓语动词的人称和数应与邻近的主语保持一致。
Either he or you are to blame for it.
不是他就是你必须为此事负责。
Not you but I am responsible for the delay.
不是你而应是我应对这次的延误负责。
附:I. 主谓一致中的"表里不一"现象
和主语必须在人称和数上保持一致高铁嚣张哥。
最基本的原则是:单数主语用单数动词,复数主语用复数动词。
但在实际使用当中情况比较复杂,现在学生常犯的主谓一致错误归纳整理如下:
1,"more than one +名词"作主语时,谓语动词常用单数.例如:
More than one teacher gets the flowers. 不止一个教师得到了花.
2,"many a +名词"作主语时,从意义上看是复数,但谓语动词常用单数.例如:
Many a student has been sent to plant trees. 很多学生被派去植树.
3,迈克尔奥赫 "half of,the rest of,most of,all of及百分数或分数+of 等后接名词"作主语时侧妃不承欢 ,谓语动词形式根据of后的名词而定.例如:
Three fourths of the surface of the earth is covered with water.地球表面四分之三为水所覆盖.
4,all指人时,动词用复数;all指物时,动词用单数.例如:
"All are present and all is going well." 所有人全部到场了,一切进展顺利
5,what引导的主语从句,谓语动词可视表语而定:表语是单数名词时,动词用单数,相反,则用复数.例如:
What they want to get are a number of good books.他们想得到的是大量的好书.
6,and连接的两个单数名词前若用each,every,no修饰,该名词短语作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式.例如:
No book and no pen is found in the schoolbag.书包里没有书和钢笔.
7,当主语后面有as well as,with,along with,together with,but,like,rather than,except,逗号加and连接几个名词等引导的短语时,谓语动词要与最前面的主语保持一致.
例如:
My father as well as his workmates has been to Beijing. 我父亲和他的同事曾去过北京.
8,each作主语的同位语时,谓语动词由主语来决定,与each无关.例如:
They each have a bike. 他们每人有一辆自行车.
9,动词不定式,动词-ing形式短语作主语时,谓语动词常用单数.例如:
Going out for a walk after supper is a good habit.晚饭后出去散步是一个好习惯.
10,the following作主语时,谓语动词的数与后面名词的数保持一致.例如:
The following are good examples下面是一些好例子.
11,以-ics结尾的学科名词,如politics,physics,mathematics等作主语时,谓语动词用单数.以-s结尾的名词news,works,plastics等同属此类.例如:
Politics is now taught in all schools. 现在各学校都开设政治课.
当以-ics结尾的学科名词表示"学科"以外的意义时,用作复数,如:mathematics(运算能力)politics(政治观点)economics(经济意义)等
12,有些用来表示由两个对应部分组成一体的名词复数(trousers,glasses,shoes.shorts.scissors.scales等)作主语时,前面若有"一条","一副","一把"之类的单位词,动词用单数;若没有单位词或单位词是复数趣酷科技 ,则谓语动词用复数.例如:
The shoes are all right. 这些鞋子都很合适.
还有一些以-s结尾的名词通常用复数:
arms(武器).
clothes.contents.minutes(记录).
remains(遗体).thanks等
13,"one and a half +名词"作主语时,谓语动词要用单数.例如:
One and a half apples is left on the table. 桌子上有一个半苹果.
14,"One or two more +复数名词"作主语时,谓语动词用复数.例如:
One or two persons are sent there to help them do the work. 要派一两个人到那儿去给他们帮忙.
15,"one of+复数名词+ 定语从句"结构中,定语从句的谓语动词要用复数;而在"the only one of +复数名词+定语从句"的结构中,"the one of + 复数名词+定语从句"定语从句的谓语动词要用单数.例如:
He is one of the students who get there on time.他是准时到达那里的学生之一.
16,表示时间,距离,金钱等的复数名词作主语表达一个整体概念时,谓语动词常用单数,但若强调数量,谓语动词可用复数.例如:
One million dollars is a lot of money. 一百万美元是一大笔钱.
II.以“s”结尾名词作主语的特殊情况
英语可数名词的规则复数形式是在词尾加-s或-es懵懂的猪 ,但是有一些以-s结尾的名词并不是可数名词。
它们用法多样,以下详述了以-s结尾的名词作主语的主谓一致问题。
(一)以-s结尾的疾病名称作主语的主谓一致问题
(二)以-s结尾的游戏名称作主语的主谓一致问题
(三)以-s结尾的地理名称作主语的主谓一致问题
(四)以-ics结尾的学科名称作主语的主谓一致问题
(五)其它以-s结尾的名词的主谓一致问题
(一)以-s结尾的疾病名称作主语的主谓一致问题
以-s结尾的疾病名称作主语的主谓一致问题,如:arthritis,bronchitis,diabetes,mumps,phlebitis,rickets,这类以-s结尾的疾病名称作主语时,谓语动词通常用作单数。
例如:
Arthritis causes great pain in the joints of the patient.
(二)以-s结尾的游戏名称作主语的主谓一致问题
以-s结尾的游戏名称作主语时,谓语动词通常用作单数。
例如:
Darts is basically an easy game.
但当Darts,Marbles等的意义为游戏器具而非游戏名称时,谓语动词通常用作复数。例如:
Three darts are thrown at each turn.
All nine skittles were brought down by the good throw.
(三)以-s结尾的地理名称作主语的主谓一致问题
某些以-s结尾的地理名称,如果是国名,如the United States,the Netherlands等,因其是单一政治实体,所以谓语动词用作单数。例如:
The United States was hit by the Great Depression in 1930s'.
In early January 1996 the Netherlands was hit by its worst storm since 1976.
但如果是群岛、山脉、海峡、瀑布等地理名称作主语,谓语动词用作复数。例如:
The West Indies are commonly divided into two parts.
(四)以-ics结尾的学科名称作主语的主谓一致问题
某些以-ics结尾的学科名称作主语时,如physics,mathematics,mechanics,optics,acoustics,politics statistics,economics都都宝,linguistics,athletics等,谓语动词通常用作单数冯佳妮 。
例如:
The third world economics is promising.
Athletics is a required course for students of all grades.
但如果这类名词表示学科以外的其它含义,可作复数用。例如:
Athletics have been greatly encouraged at this college.
(五)其它以-s结尾的名词的主谓一致问题
以-s结尾的由两部分组成的物体名称作主语
英语中有一些通常以-s结尾的由两部分组成的物体名词,如glasses,pincers,pliers,scissors,shorts,suspenders,trousers等, 为复数名词,后接复数谓语